Friday, February 14, 2020

The Legitimacy of the Sarum Use

The Sarum Use of the Roman Rite always seems destined for a breakout and yet never seems to get there. Interest in Sarum began in the '90s with the Oratorian celebrations at Merton College chapel in Oxford and has only increased in the years since Summorum Pontificum. Here we had a full length video for the information age to behold: medieval Catholic liturgy in all its splendor, no taste of minimalism or restriction, just the spirit of the ancient Roman liturgy as distilled in England during the centuries prior to the Reformation.

Most recently Sarum Vespers were celebrated in Philadelphia under the approval of the archdiocese in a place where that liturgical rite has never been observed before. It prompts the question: is there a legitimate place for the Sarum Use in the Catholic Church today?

Recapitulating History

With enough resources available to celebrate a proper solemn high Mass over two decades ago, there is already enough about Sarum for readers, but to construct an answer to the question we must construct a premise for understanding what Sarum is.

The Sarum Use was, as characterized by Dr. Adrian Fortescue, a local dialect of the Roman rite adapted to the medieval city of Salisbury in England. There is developed into the cathedral liturgy with its processions, unique texts, variations of Roman melodies as its music, its extra readings on feasts, and other unique features that made it different from the Use of York, the Use of Braga, the mother Roman rite etc.

Its origins are two fold, in Rome and in Saint Osmund. In the former case, Saint Gregory the Great, pope from 590-604, sent missionaries from his house monastery to re-establish the Christian religion in what is now England. During the age of the Roman Empire, when the state religion switched from paganism to Christianity, England followed suit. Gregory Dix records Anglo-Romans asking the pope to bless the corporals used in Masses, demonstrating an early affinity for the Church of Rome itself. After the mission of Saint Augustine of Canterbury various monasteries requested monks and liturgical books from the collegiate chapter of Saint Peter's Basilica so that they might celebrate the Office and Mass as they were sung at the tomb of the Prince of the Apostles. While other cities of Europe wished to keep their own rites English churches decidedly wished to follow Roman praxis.

The second great event that led to the Roman rite was the invasion of England by William the Conqueror and the ensuing Battle of Hastings in 1066, the year which begins "modern history" according to my professors on the Oxford History faculty. William received Rome's blessing to invade England in no small part due to the generally disatisfactory leadership of the English Church at the time; a new regime would allow the wholesale replacement of the upper clergy. Among the new higher clerics was Saint Osmund, Norman by birth and later bishop of Salisbury by the will of Saint Gregory VII.

Osmund brought the Norman customs of the Roman rite to Salisbury and built the [first] cathedral to house his synthesis of Norman-Roman liturgy and English habits. Many of the features of Sarum will be familiar to readers of our series of the Lyonese Mass and Br. Aelred's translations of the Voyages Liturgiques. Among them are the stational processions for Sundays and feasts, the role of canons in regulating the cathedral liturgy, the pontifical blessing after the Canon, and the generally communal observance of choir ceremonies.

Sarum continued and thrived, winning a place of honor in the heart of Henry VIII, who commanded it be the only rite of Mass celebrated in England. Not long after came the "king's great matter." Heresy and Schism became friends with each other and Reformers desperate to destroy the Mass whispered into the ear of a king desperate to end his marriage. Eamon Duffy demonstrated in his Stripping of the Altars that the king likely did not approve of the extent of liturgical purging that ensued, but trimming excesses were presented to a generally orthodox king as means of destroying the entire Catholic edifice.

As with the relics at Oxford during Jesuit days at Saint Aloysius, the Missals and vestments were hidden in hopes that better days would come. Churches were ransacked, looted, sold off, the priests butchered in some places and given Prayer Books in others. Then came the Marian Restoration. Mass in the Sarum Use spontaneously returned, Catholic culture revived itself with official approbation for five years until Queen Mary and her ally, Cardinal Pole of Canterbury, died within hours of each other. The Missals and vestments once again were boarded up in plaster and walls in hope that a Catholic would again tolerate the Mass, but Elizabeth became queen, Saint Pius V excommunicated her, and Mass would never be sung in the great cathedrals again.

In the years that followed Recusant families funded priests stationed out of Douai to come to their homes and offer the Sacraments for their loved ones and neighbors who kept the old religion. Early on the priests were clergy who fled Henry, Edward, and Elizabeth Tudor, priests reared in the Sarum liturgy. A Sarum Missal used by one such priest is one display at Coughton Court with the una cum papa nostro N blacked out early on in the Henrician schism. Later priests from Douai, trained by Jesuits in the Tridentine books, let the Sarum Use obsolesce, not that junior clerics would rule the choir at Coughton Court on lesser Simplex feasts.

Unlike the other local usages of the Roman rite, which fell away due to clerical sloth or the costly expense of maintaining a parallel set of liturgical books, Sarum died because the people who used it died off.

Cognizant of this fact, we must consider what would be the proper, legitimate setting for the Sarum Use today, if there is one. As we will see below, although it was the liturgy of medieval Catholic England, it has been used in a variety of settings since then and only occasionally under its original auspices.

Catholic Revival

As stated above, the first major modern celebration of the Sarum Use came through the efforts of Fr. Sean Finnegan, then of the Oxford Oratory. He, along with the now departed Fr. Jerome Bertram CO, and some other liturgically inclined person founded the Saint Osmund Society to organize annual celebrations of the Mass according to the Sarum books. Utilizing the Bodleian Library's resources ranging from Missals and Graduals to medieval commentators and illustrations from devotional Primers, Finnegan put together the blessing, procession, and solemn Mass for February 2, the feast of the Purification or Candlemas.

The Saint Osmund Society offered its first Mass in Merton College's chapel in 1996 and, pleased with the success of the event, followed up with a similar event in 1997. The clergy were from the Archdiocese of Birmingham and the singers taken from local parish choirs. The vestments came from the Oratory. Finnegan celebrated and Bertram preached the sermon. The Archbishop gave his approval for both events and the celebration was destined to become an annual recurrence until legalism struck.

The Rad Trad has heard one version of this story from separate parties which present very different images of the person involved. Whether he was harmless in intention and genuinely curious or an unstable meddler out to cause trouble by means of confusion, a man wrote to the Vatican to draw their attention to the celebrations and denoted that they were being held outside of a diocesan church and under the auspices of the "Saint Osmund Society," an association unapproved by any Roman congregation. Rome talked to the Archbishop who talked to the Oratorians who agreed that to avoid any future confusion they would receive permission under Ecclesia Dei to celebrate the Roman rite and put Sarum to bed. Fr. Bertram, of blessed memory, said that Rome might have been less confused if their association's name had been translated "gruppo" instead of "societa", which they took to mean something akin to "Society of Saint Pius X". Henceforth, Oratorians remembered the organization as the "Donny Osmund Society."

Three years later a pontifical Sarum Mass was celebrated in Aberdeen, Scotland, where it never would have been celebrated in the Middle Ages, by Bishop Mario Conti.

The brief Catholic revival, early in the information age, guaranteed a unique future for the Sarum Use that other non-Roman, Latin rite liturgies have not enjoyed: a deep abundance of information and resources that would perpetuate its interest and enable its survival, even if only as a theoretical rite of liturgy. Blogs concerned with medieval history, Anglicanism, liturgical history and much more make either passing or extensive mention of Sarum. The interest may well have been more tangible if Sarum had become the cathedral liturgy of Westminster Cathedral, as was supposedly an option, then interest may have been deeper. As it were, many of the religious orders during Catholic re-establishment in England were Continental and bound to the Roman rite as were the Irish clergy who often staffed parish churches.

In 2011, the year the Ordinariates were concretely established by Benedict XVI, those close to Msgr. Andrew Burnham whispered that Sarum might once again become available as a liturgical choice for England. The Ordinariate had no liturgy of their own. The books now for the Ordinariate bear a greater resemblance to the Prayer Book and reformed Roman rite than they do to the Sarum Use.

I was present at the first ever liturgy of the Ordinariate, held at Blackfriars that summer as votive Vespers of the Holy Ghost, a service devised by Msgr. Burnham himself. The service followed the older Roman (and Sarum) pattern of Vespers: five psalms with antiphons, a chapter, versicles, the Magnificat with an antiphon, and then several collects and suffrages for the needs of the Church, including the "Deus a quo sancta desideria...." It was a mix of traditional Catholic Vespers with Anglican elements and celebrated in elevated vernacular.

More recently, and hopefully with greater endurance than the Oxonian venture, is the Durandus Institute's celebration of first Vespers of Candlemas in Philadelphia. Under the leadership of James T.M. Griffin using, presumably, local clergy and singers for the event. It comes a year after the Schola Sainte-Cecile also celebrated Sarum Vespers, once again in Oxford. Both were recorded—the Philadelphia event with video and the Oxford one with photographs—and publicized without any fallings out that plagued the 1997 Mass. To my knowledge no Mass has yet been celebrated according to Sarum books under official approbation since 2000.

Anglican Celebrations

"I grew up next to an Anglican church," said Fr. Bertram, "and I still don't understand the Church of England."

A not insignificant number of Sarum instances have come up under Anglican banners in both Europe and North America in recent years. For outsiders to Anglicanism it would be surprising that the Church which replaced the Catholic Church, and which practices the liturgy which replaced Sarum, would be interested in the medieval Catholic liturgy.

Anglicanism does not always hold to the general congruity Catholic and Orthodox Christians perceive between theology and liturgy. A Dallas Episcopalian church offers a vernacular Tridentine Mass once in a while; I have seen the priestess at a local seafood restaurant during Lent with her congregation.

As such, some Anglicans hold a view of the Eucharist more in line with Henry VIII's Six Articles than with the later Thirty-Nine Articles. To such a view Sarum is more comprehensible. It holds to a traditional view of the Eucharist, even if the people do not hold a traditional view of who may confect it and how, its collects and readings, its cycle of saints and choir tradition all preceded the Prayer Book and, indeed, the Prayer Book is in no small part a translation followed by cut-and-paste of the propers of Sarum.

St. Thomas on Huron Street in Toronto celebrated Sarum on, you guessed it, Candlemas, a decade ago. An Anglo-Catholic church which observes the Prayer Book, Sarum would have been an exception to their normal practice.

More famously, Fr. Anthony Chadwick celebrates the Sarum Use in his chapel in France. Much like the Oratorian celebrations in Oxford, Fr. Anthony does not make his Masses an act of historical play acting, replete with period style vestments and vessels. He uses what he has from his days observing the Tridentine books and does his best. He has even put out videos of his low Masses, one of a straight through low Mass and the other an instructional. Both are the only videos of their kind available now.

What is interesting is how like the Dominican Mass and other medieval, monastic usages Sarum resembles as a low Mass. It contains fewer reverences and signs of the Cross than the Roman Mass, prepares the chalice at the start of Mass, and does not perform the Last Gospel as a liturgical function at the altar, merely as the celebrant's private devotion.

Western Rite Eastern Orthodoxy

Without a doubt the strangest place Sarum has reappeared is as one option, in many forms, in the Western rite experiment of the Eastern Orthodox Churches. According to Byzantinist and Orthophile Steven Runciman, the pope's name was omitted from the commemorations at the Divine Liturgy of the Hagia Sophia in 1009. Cardinal Humbert's lamentable venture in 1054 is the commonly accepted, if generally inaccurate date of the East-West Schism. Greeks took a disapproving view of Latins prior to the 11th century yet the final parting did not happen until after the fall of Constantinople, when Mehmed II appointed anti-unionist leader Gennadios Scholarios as Patriarch, who rebuked the Council of Florence in 1471, nearly five centuries after the pope's name was first slashed from the diptychs.

Why does all of this matter? Sarum is presented in these rare communities as a return to pre-Schism Latin Orthodoxy. More than just a liturgical rite, it is a means of constructing a narrative of an England or a Western Christendom that was one a Latin-speaking part of the Orthodox Churches with its own liturgy. One video of such a community contained constant references to Saint Bede the Venerable's time. This is probably a means of bypassing the obvious influence of Saint Augustine as the theologian par excellence of the Latin Church and the role of Saint Gregory the Great, the Dialogist in Eastern terminology, in diffusing Augustinian thought as a means of practical theology.

If one accepts any date prior to Hastings for the Schism, be it 1009 or 1054 even when the West began to use unleavened bread more commonly in the 9th century, then neither Sarum nor its roots were ever celebrated in England or known to Bede, whose monastery at Jarrow would have known some other version of the Roman rite, likely with influences and particularities lost to us. It was the rite of medieval, post-Augustine and potentially post-Schism England.

The Sarum Use as practiced in Western rite settings varies. Some observe it as given in the books with the odd change to suit the practices of broader Eastern Orthodoxy: no Filioque in the Creed and leavened bread. Others heavily Hellenize the Mass and Office to a super-Uniate level. Six years ago a friend looked for an English translation of the Sarum Mass and found a pew book for the Antiochian Orthodox Church's "Sarum" rite. This bastardized Mass containing several exclamations from the end of the litanies of the Divine Liturgy randomly inserted between chants with inappropriate ascriptions to Saint Ambrose, Saint Gregory and others. The Thrice Holy Hymn, the Trisagion, was placed before the Epistle, where it is found in the Divine Liturgy. Most dramatically the Roman Canon was amended to include the epiclesis of the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, although without any instructions to use that from the Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great during Lent as is the case in the Byzantine rite. These celebrations are invariably in the vernacular rather than in Latin.

Conclusions: Legitimate Settings for the Sarum Use

In conclusion, is there a legitimate place for the Sarum Use today? There is certainly legitimate interest.

In Rhode Island a Portuguese priest named Fr. Santos occasionally celebrates Mass according to the Use of Braga, his native archdiocese and the origin of many Portuguese immigrants who settled in the tiny state next to Massachusetts. The Bragan liturgy, like any Use of the Roman rite, is an essentially local variation of the Roman liturgy and belongs to the people for whom it was intended to be celebrated. A Dominican can celebrate the Dominican Mass in his convent or in Saint Peter's Basilica, whereas a canon of Saint Peter's may not celebrate the Dominican Mass at all, as he has no claim to it.

This is an important point in considering whether Sarum should have a future and what it should look like. Sarum was the Mass and Office of post-Hastings, medieval England—not Toronto, not Antioch, and not Philadelphia. Unlike other local Uses, Sarum did not die off due to centralization, the cheaper cost of book printing, or the unanimous decision of the collegiate chapter as happened with many other local liturgies. Also, it was not replaced by the Novus Ordo Missae as was the case for the Dominican, Cistercian, Carmelite, Bragan, and Lyonese liturgies. It was killed by monarchs of the kingdom where it was said. The Catholic clergy of that country never consented to its death and its replacement was due to primarily theological rather than liturgical motivations.

As such, it could be revived on the grounds that the Church never decided to relinquish its practice in England. It belongs to England and is a Catholic rite of Mass, ceremony, and psaltery.

Extending the principle governance of local Uses to Sarum legitimizes its celebration in England, but certainly not readily elsewhere. While I am happy that a video of Sarum Vespers exists and that the event was well attended, I cannot help but think, unless something else was behind it, that the service in Philadelphia was perhaps misplaced.

One place outside of England where the Sarum Use would also be appropriate is in the Ordinariate. As stated above, the Prayer Book which many in the Ordinariate knew as Anglicans is based, at least in the propers and kalendar for the Eucharist, on the propers of the Sarum Mass: its cycle of readings, its Sundays counted after Trinity, its collects and more. Even the beautiful Collect for Purity was a vesting prayer in the Sarum books before the Reformation. While the traditional Roman books are available to any priest of the Latin rite of the Catholic Church, Sarum would be a logical and very fitting extraordinary form of liturgy for Catholics who were raised on those texts in a different setting. Indeed, they would unite those prayers with the Catholic theology from which they were removed in the 16th century.

As for the rest, I am merely a blogger and cannot tell anyone what to do, but Sarum, were it to return, would be most appropriate if celebrated in as close a setting as it was originally intended.


  1. I am not against - in any way - the using of the Use Of Sarum- but all these pictures make it look as if they've gone to the Dressing Up box and put on what they can find. I know that long and full English Surplices are expensive - but surely something could be done to avoid the trappings of Rome (long lace-ness under a cope). Longish plain surplices could be found and the square necked cotta avoided. I am sorry to be critical but,whatever the perfections of music and words, it's the people who just don't "look right".After all, the outward signs in liturgy betoken the inner spirit. Look at any of the Alcuin Club or Wareham Guild pictures [found online] to see what relatively modern people (no funny modern hairstyles or facial hair) can have a medieval liturgical look.

  2. Kudos to those who took the trouble and time to organise this celebration but having said that I must say I find it hard to understand why there should be a celebration of an English medieval rite in Philadelphia. I may be missing some vital point and Philadelphia may have a long history of association with Salisbury.

    What I think needs to be understood is that Sarum is not per se a variant of the Tridentine Rite. Rather it is a developed, local, rite from Normandy whose origins are from the old Roman liturgy celebrated in the churches of Rome. The Tridentine rite is from the liturgy of the papal court, a revised and simplified form of the old Roman designed for busy clerics. Sarum is a kind of cousin to the Tridentine rite and not a sibling.

    As to the person who wrote to Rome regarding the celebration at Merton College he is someone I have known for many years and a great expert on Neo-Gallican liturgies with an impressive collection of liturgical books of those rites. I would certainly reject the description of him as an ‘unstable meddler’.

    The nineteenth century saw a great interest in Sarum within the Church of England and it had many champions, as a source, who were keen to recover an English identity with broadly Tractarian theology rather than simply adopt contemporary continental Roman praxis and all that entailed. There has certainly been more interest by modern Anglicans in Sarum than by Catholics until very recent times.

    I do agree with Shaun Davies’ observation above about lace but would go further and say any liturgical celebration is greatly enhanced by the exclusion of lace.

    1. Well, a priest of the Anglican Ordinariate of the Chair of St. Peter was the celebrant, so this celebration may have something to do with that; there were also a few Anglican Ordinariate members and even an Episcopal organist. Also, I found it interesting that Fr. Pasley, rector of Mater Ecclesiae Chapel, was the assisting priest.

    2. I invited Father Pasley, the assisting-priest, to wear his choir dress as a clerical Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, which includes a lace rochet as part of the standard dress. This was a deliberate decision to signify him as an honorary canon, thus an ideal choice for filling that role.

      I enjoy the Alcuin Club photos and have probably studied them as much as anyone else in this group. However, they are staged photographs for the interest of a small group of academics and liturgical enthusiasts; not living acts of liturgical prayer. I would very much enjoy receiving a grant from Mr. Davies to do a set of staged photographs in the tradition of the Alcuin Club. But that was beside the point for this particular celebration, attended by over 700 people--most of them young adults, who are the future of the Church. Celebrations like this do more to bring the treasures of Sarum alive more than staged photographs ever will.

    3. As to the person who wrote to Rome regarding the celebration at Merton College he is someone I have known for many years and a great expert on Neo-Gallican liturgies with an impressive collection of liturgical books of those rites. I would certainly reject the description of him as an ‘unstable meddler’.

      It is, alas, the narrative I have heard. But I'm always happy to learn more from those with first hand knowledge.

      Whatever his intentions or character, however, what cannot be denied is that what he did turned out to be a disaster for the Sarum Use, and a hard blow to a lot of innocent involved clerics and laity - and more to the point, should have been easily foreseen to generate such a result.

    4. I will let the article stand, but I regret how I worded this passage. I did not intend to attribute any malice to the individual who called Rome, only ambiguity as to why he did so. It is less relevant than the fact that he did do so and the ensuing confusion ended the Oxford celebrations.

  3. Speaking as the assistant director (assisting Mr. Griffen) of this liturgical act, I can say the following:
    1. The main celebrant was a priest of the Ordinariate.
    2. Many of the clergy in choir, singers, and altar servers were members of the Ordinariate.
    3. This was not done as some sort of historical re-enactment. This was a public prayer of the Catholic Church attended by many clergy from many different religious orders and dioceses. Our hope was to expose the faithful to a piece of our liturgical patrimony which has tragically been lost since the Reformation.

  4. Rad Trad, you are to be commended on this very thorough overview of Sarum's recent history!

    I would have been happy to have addressed your question about "why Philadelphia?" if you had asked me directly! Glad to also explain publicly in a comment. Unfortunately, photos and video show an event out of context, without providing the story for why and how it came to be.

    The short version is that this was proposed to the archdiocese as a one-time celebration for the purpose of evangelizing to students of early music and history at the universities of of this area. One of our principal sponsors was the Collegium Institute for Catholic Thought & Culture at the University of Pennsylvania. The Aquinas Institute at Princeton also lent its support. Both these universities were established under the British Empire, prior to independence. The Sarum Use may have not ever been celebrated in Philadelphia before, but it was once the second-largest city of the British Empire after London itself.

    The city has many roots in the Anglicanism. William White, first Episcopal Bishop of Pennsylvania, was the first Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church. As for Catholicism, you probably know well that Philadelphia is the only city in the United States that claims home to two canonized saints (John Neumann, Katharine Drexel). We have a very vibrant culture for young adult Catholics. The city was ripe for an event like this. By God's grace, I was able to bring over 700 people to attend.

    Seven. Hundred.

    In a church with no free parking anywhere around, with central heating, on a cold rainy night that wasn't even a Mass, wasn't led by a famous bishop, and didn't fulfill anyone's Sunday obligation. That would almost surely make this the most well-attended celebration of the Sarum Use since the reign of Queen Mary I.

    It wasn't an official Ordinariate event, but we had a priest of the Ordinariate officiate. Most of the Ordinariate clergy in the region attended in-choir, and an Ordinariate deacon intoned the fifth antiphon. More singers in the choir came from the local Ordinariate parish than any other one place. And of course, the principal organizer (myself) is an instituted acolyte of the Ordinariate.

    I firmly believe that "by your fruits, you shall know them." Immediately after the end of this Vespers, two people of the Anglican communion approached me asking how to enter into the Catholic Church through the Ordinariate. In the following 4 days, I received multiple requests on how to organize Sarum Vespers in their areas, a request for organizing a Mass in the old Carmelite Rite, and I'm now seeing about the possibility of establishing celebrations of the Dominican rite in Philadelphia.

    Most importantly, I received countless testimonies from attendees who said the Sarum Vespers was among the most beautiful worship events they ever attended, and that it greatly strengthened their faith in this difficult era of the Church's history. I was able to answer questions from many people about what Vespers even was, and the role that the Divine Office plays in the life of the Church. It is now possible to have more celebrations of Vespers in the traditional Roman Rite, using the Tridentine books, in Philadelphia thanks to the initial enthusiasm spurred by this one celebration.

    I ask for your continued prayers and support as the Durandus Institute contributes to the revival of Catholic tradition here and beyond.

    1. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? I must apologise unreservedly for my rather carping criticisms; reading the last section of this comment shows what great apostolic value can be had from the Divine Office. Rather as the late Monsignor Alfred Gilbey is quoted as saying: "If this will help, with God's grace, to bring one single soul to the sacraments, then...........with not have worked entirely in vain."

    2. @ Mr. Griffin,

      Would you be open to discussing your aspirations for the Durandus Institute at some point?

    3. "Would you be open to discussing your aspirations for the Durandus Institute at some point?"

      I would be happy to do so.

  5. I would like to thank you for such a comprehensive treatment of the subject within a single blog post. My own contribution is insignificant even if I have been "banging the drum" for more than a decade. I am quite overwhelmed by the opposition motivated by legalism and rubricism. I have a Facebook group on

    Something I can understand is the uprooting in general of Christianity from culture and what has happened to culture in terms of a drift away from humanism into hyper-rationalism and irrationalism. For the Sarum liturgy itself, I seem to have firmly planted a seed among others. I am concerned about inadequation between modern culture (even of Christians and Catholics) and the liturgical life of another age and another culture.

    I have come to attach less importance to the rite, or even to the trappings, than to something that made liturgical and spiritual revival possible in the 19th century - Romanticism. That is hardly something to promote on a mass scale on pain of destroying it.

    I plan to be in a get-together of a few friends this coming October to discuss a few things. I am not a leader and have no way of knowing how to influence a "movement". Perhaps we will come up with some ideas...

  6. Thanks for another excellent treatment of the Sarum Use, Rad Trad.

    My only quibbles would be two - and the clarification by other commenters of the Ordinariate connections of this Vespers event suffices to address one of them, the objection to the event in Philadelphia.

    The other is more of a tweak. Quote: While the traditional Roman books are available to any priest of the Latin rite of the Catholic Church, Sarum would be a logical and very fitting extraordinary form of liturgy for Catholics who were raised on those texts in a different setting. I agree with this, and as a member of the Ordinariate in the U.S. I have thought this should be the case from the outset: the Sarum Use as an "Extraordinary Form" proper to all of the Ordinariates, though of course such priests could also celebrate the Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite, too.

    But I would go further: To permit the celebration of Sarum Use books to all priests incardinated in the dioceses of the Church in England and Wales; and working from the principle you've offered for the continued liciety of the Sarum Use (that it was suppressed by hostile outside forces, not by the Church), I might also suggest that the same allowance be put in place for the Use of York, for Ordinariate, diocesan, and religious priests incardinated within the dioceses of the ecclesiastic province of Liverpool. I might even suggest the same for the Uses of Hereford and Aberdeen, but I am not even sure if the books fully survive for them at this point.

  7. I expressed the idea, which keeps recurring in my mind, in my recent blog posting and in a book I'm writing:

    "What I find so tragic is that never were the Anglicans and Roman Catholics so close spiritually and culturally than in that period shortly predating the paroxysm of Roman triumphalism and the authoritarianism of Pius IX. The Anglicans sought their medieval roots, and the Roman Catholics sought their Recusant heritage, both from exactly the same source".

    I have a doubt in my mind. Can anyone tell me if there were actually good relations between Roman Catholic clergy and Ritualist Anglicans, shall we say between the 1840's when Pugin was building all those lovely neo-gothic churches and "English" style Anglican clergy until Vatican I? There should have been a convergence before the development of Ultramontanism. Would such an idea have any historical foundation?

    1. I cannot think of any tangible, literary, or anecdotal evidence of that sort of link. Unlike the Catholic and Orthodox Christians of Eastern Europe and the Orient—which had remarkable inter-Communion, concelebration, granting faculties to each other's clergy etc until the late 19th century—I think Catholics and Anglicans knew that they belonged to very different Churches. The Ritualist and Tractarian movements hadn't yet moved into the mainstream and Anglicanism was still largely a stiff version of the BCP, Calvinistic theology, and a lessened Sacramental system. Catholicism was largely Irish, foreign, and a bit too different even for the likes of Pusey. I believe even the Romantic poet Rossetti left her fiance when he reverted to the Catholic Church. Things began to change with regard to perception after the conversion of Newman, but I don't think mutual affinity was part of that.

      In short, I would say at the time the Anglican Church was insufficiently Catholic and the Catholic Church was insufficiently English.